Tehran is the capital and the most important political and economic center of the country. Tehran is situated central north of the country, on the southern slopes of Alborz Mountains. It lies at an elevation of 1,100 meters above the Caspian Sea level and it is the vastest and the most populous city of Iran, ranking among the most prominent cities of the world. Tehran which means “warm slope”, was a village in the suburb of the ancient Iranian capital of Rey, and after the fall of Rey by the Mongols in 1220 A.D., its residents moved to Tehran and the foundation for it to become a city was thus laid. After the establishment of a constitutional government in the early 20th century, Tehran has been declared, in the Constitution, as the capital and the seat of the Majlis (Parliament). Tehran’s population has been steadily rising. In 1923, the population of Tehran amounted to 210,000, in 1966 it reached 2.7 million, in 1988 it went over 6 million, and now it stands at above 12 million. The population of the capital is further increased by another 3 million who commute to Tehran during work hours. the 1940s and over the course of the subsequent six decades, the shape of the city has been heavily altered, with the city witnessing the erection of large modern public and governmental buildings, new parks, sports arenas, well equipped modern hospitals, universities and educational centers, theatres, museums, luxurious hotels and restaurants as well many other structures. The development of urban facilities in Tehran however has caused an influx of immigration into the city.
Climate, Tehran Province:
Environmentally speaking the climate of Tehran province in the desert and southern territories is warm and dry, in the skirts of the mountains, semi -humid and cold, and in the higher regions, cold, experiencing long winters. The hottest months of the year are mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range at an average of 28° to 30° C and the coldest months experience a 1° C temperature that is in December to January. Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. North of which and Shemiranat experience a moderate climate in summers. The average annual rainfall is approximately 400 mm., the maximum being during the winter.